Carbohydrate consumption, particularly in the form of starch, was critical for the accelerated expansion of the human brain over the last million years, scientists have found.
Understanding how and why we evolved such large brains is one of the most puzzling issues in the study of human evolution.
The study suggests that eating meat may have kick-started the evolution of bigger brains, but cooked starchy foods together with more salivary amylase genes made us smarter still.
Up until now, there has been a heavy focus on the role of animal protein and cooking in the development of the human brain over the last 2 million years, and the importance of carbohydrate, particular in form of starch-rich plant foods, has been largely overlooked.
In a study published in The Quarterly Review of Biology, Karen Hardy, a Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) Research Professor at the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) and colleagues highlight their observations to build a case for dietary carbohydrate being essential for the evolution of modern big-brained humans.
The human brain uses up to 25 per cent of the body’s energy budget and up to 60 per cent of blood glucose. While synthesis of glucose from other sources is possible, it is not the most efficient way, and these high glucose demands are unlikely to have been met on a low carbohydrate diet, researchers said.
Human pregnancy and lactation place additional demands on the body’s glucose budget and low maternal blood glucose levels compromise the health of both the mother and her offspring, they said.
Starches would have been readily available to ancestral human populations in the form of tubers, as well as in seeds and some fruits and nuts and while raw starches are often only poorly digested in humans, when cooked they lose their crystalline structure and become far more easily digested.
Researchers added that salivary amylase genes are usually present in many copies in humans, but in only 2 copies in other primates.
This increases the amount of salivary amylase produced and so increases the ability to digest starch.
The exact date when salivary amylase genes multiplied remains uncertain, but genetic evidence suggests it was at some point in the last 1 million years.
Researchers propose that after cooking became widespread, the co-evolution of cooking and higher copy number of the salivary amylase (and possibly pancreatic amylase) genes increased the availability of pre-formed dietary glucose to the brain and foetus, which in turn, permitted the acceleration in brain size increase which occurred from around 800,000 years ago onwards.